Chapter 1 Task Description 1
1.1Task Background 1
1.2Task Contents and Features 1
1.3Task Significance 2
Chapter 2 Task Process 4
2.1Pre-interpreting Preparations 4
2.1.1Background Information 4
2.1.2Glossary of Terms 5
2.1.3Theoretical Preparation 6
2.2Interpreting Process 8
2.3Post Interpreting 9
2.3.1Feedback from the Speaker 9
2.3.2Feedback from the Foreigners 9
Chapter 3 Case Analysis 11
3.1Interpreting Techniques 11
3.1.5Transliteration Plus Explanation 20
3.2Major Problems during Interpretation 21
3.2.1Missing Information 22
3.2.2Internet Problems 24
3.2.3Inaccurate Interpretation 24
Chapter 4 Conclusion 28
4.1Major Findings 28
4.2Enhancement of Comprehensive Quality 28
Appendix I Recording Scripts 32
Appendix II Glossary 43
Chapter 1 Task Description
In this chapter, the author mainly introduces some essential information about the background, features and significance of the task. The report originates from a consecutive interpreting that the author did for an exchange about traditional Chinese medicine acupuncture-moxibustion and tuina.
Traditional Chinese medicine, abbreviated as TCM, has played a key role in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 has surfaced as a common disaster for mankind. In China's plan to fight against COVID-19, TCM has made a crucial contribution. In the COVID-19 diagnosis and treatment plan, Qingfeipaidu decoction (QPD) was included in the first choice of TCM clinical treatment and its total survival rate was more than 90%. It not only played an important role in containing the pandemic at home, but also provided some valuable experience for other countries. The status of TCM has been more and more widely recognized all over the world at present.
Three international graduate students from International Education College are studying traditional Chinese medicine in Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. They are NGUYEN NGOC ANH from Vietnam, Geraldine from Philippines and SU PO MAY from Myanmar. Their Chinese names are Ruan Yuying, Tang Xiaojun and Su Bomin respectively. Three girls are absorbed in TCM acupuncture-moxibustion and tuina and would like to have a chance to get some knowledge deeply and master some simple techniques. Zhang Jingyu, a privileged Chinese postgraduate from the School of Acupuncture and Tuina in this university, was entrusted by his teacher to hold this exchange. He not only had a strong interest in TCM acupuncture-moxibustion and tuina, but also gained more personal experience after following teachers to do some experiments. Introduced by her friend who was studying in Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the author got the opportunity to provide the consecutive interpreting service for this meeting. The three foreigners still stayed in their own countries for the sake of coronavirus epidemic. As a result, Mr. Zhang suggested that the meeting could be held through Tencent Meeting App on August 29, 2020. Three international students used VooV Meeting, the international version of Tencent Meeting.
1.2Task Contents and Features
In this practice, the author was responsible for the interpretation between the speaker and three foreign students. The task content involved three parts, that is, the general introduction of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese medicine, School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina and some acupuncture and tuina techniques.
In the first part, the speaker talked about their university—TUTCM, chiefly about the discipline construction, distinguished school-running characteristics and their president Zhang Boli. In part two, the speaker greatly introduced some fruitful accomplishments about his school, the leader of the school—Shi Xuemin academician and the famous Research Center of Experiment Acupuncture Science. Part three was about some techniques, which was the main part in the whole exchange, including acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping therapy and tuina manipulation. After each part, there was a Q&A part that the speaker and foreigners had an interaction. Three foreigners could ask questions and share their opinions with the speaker. The author needed to interpret what they said from Chinese into English and from English to Chinese respectively. What the author needed to do most was to interpret what the speaker said.
The task was mainly a Chinese-English consecutive interpreting about TCM with complexity and flexibility. Complexity is that fulling of specific medical vocabulary and TCM knowledge requires her to get familiar with the language style and professional terminologies. Flexibility means that the author must have a quick response when the speaker and foreigners having conversations with each other.
The author believes that it is meaningful to study TCM interpreting for the reason that it not only played an essential role in fighting the COVID-19 all over the world, but also had a strong cultural background. “Qingfeipaidu decoction” could enhance the immunity of confirmed patients and had clinically an obvious effect on treating diseases. Actually, after accumulation in the past thousands of years, TCM eliminated pain caused by various diseases for generations. With the inheritance and development of countless physicians, TCM still has its own particular vitality and profound culture so far.
On the one hand, the task was held to deepen the foreign students' understanding of the School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina in their university and strengthen their knowledge about the traditional culture of acupuncture-moxibustion and tuina. As an example, through the introduction of academician Shi Xuemin's “Xingnao Kaiqiao” acupuncture therapy, overseas students could know more about this therapy, such as acupoint selection, simple operation, contraindications and precautions. On the other hand, through the exchange, Chinese and foreign students increased the opportunities of interactive learning so as to promote mutual friendship.
From the perspective of cultural exchange, the exchange vividly introduced old traditional techniques of acupuncture-moxibustion and tuina in TCM for overseas students, demonstrated the unique charm of TCM culture and promoted the foreign exchange and development of TCM. From the perspective of the author, this interpreting practice helped to exercise her interpreting competence and enhance the sense of responsibility in inheriting the Chinese excellent traditional culture. There is no doubt that there are plenty of professional TCM terms, culture-loaded words and difficult sentences in the interpreting process, so it is extremely important for the author to consider how to solve these problems. In addition, the practice gave her a chance to show the advantages of TCM in the prevention and treatment of diseases to foreign students.
Chapter 2 Task Process
The total time of the exchange was 80 minutes and the author provided consecutive interpretation service. The author acquired the speaker and foreign students' permission to record the sound and screen. The process of task can be divided into three parts: pre-interpreting preparations, interpreting process and post-interpreting reflections.
After receiving the task on August 22nd, 2020, in order to make full preparations for pre-interpreting, the author made the following preparatory work. To start with, the author communicated with the speaker and foreigners actively through WeChat so as to get familiar with the theme and the arrangement of the exchange. Subsequently, the author received Mr. Zhang's PowerPoint slides on the 24th of August, five days before the exchange. The author read the words on the PPT carefully and wrote down where she couldn't understand. The author asked the speaker for help to explain the meaning of some words, phrases and sentences, which were particular expressions in TCM. When the author could understand their meanings, she tried to translate them into English. Additionally, the author made a list of the glossary in accordance with the PPT and looked up the corresponding version by dictionary and Internet. Last but not least, the author reviewed the interpretive theory and some interpreting techniques.
In the stage of preparations, theme information is the most essential. Since the author hasn't done interpreting practice about TCM before, she needed to master the relevant information about TCM as much as possible.
According to the theme, the author not only got some background knowledge about Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, but also downloaded some articles about acupuncture on CNKI and analyzed these paralleled texts. Moreover, the author collected some relative information by surfing the official website about TUTCM, School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina and International Education College, watching some English promotional videos about TUTCM and First Teaching Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine and reading some books about the basic knowledge of acupuncture and tuina and the interpreting techniques about TCM.
2.1.2Glossary of Terms
According to Zhang Jiliang (2003), interpreters should collect technical terminologies and proper nouns as many as possible before the task in order to relieve their pressures in on-site interpreting and enhance their confidence as well. Building a glossary of terms is an indispensable and significant way to complete the pre-interpreting task. Interpreters can master professional terms in transitory time so as to ensure the contents that they will interpret are accurate and the interpretation fluent.
After the author receiving the PPT, she firstly read the contents carefully. As she read as she underlined the words and sentences that she couldn't understand. The author tried to grasp what the speaker would mainly talk about, understood the meaning of the sentences and clarified logical order of his speech. The speech was mainly about acupuncture-moxibustion and tuina, which involved a large number of terms such as meridians, acupoints, acupuncture, moxibustion, tuina manipulation and so on. Therefore, the author searched for some specific glossaries related to TCM acupuncture-moxibustion and tuina through the Internet and books and made a list.
Table 2-1 The Terms of Acupoints
肩贞穴 Jianzhen-SI9 委中穴 Weizhong-BL40
肩髎穴 Jianliao-SJ14 风池穴 Fengchi-GB20
肩髃穴 Jianyu-LI15 完骨穴 Wangu-GB12
天枢穴 Tianshu-ST25 百会穴 Baihui-DU20
足三里穴 Zusanli-ST36 金津穴 Jinjin(EX-HN 12)
内关穴 Neiguan-PC6 玉液穴 Yuye(EX-HN13)
合谷穴 Hegu-LI4 中脘穴 Zhongwan-RN12
大椎穴 Dazhui-DU14 关元穴 Guanyuan-RN4
至阴穴 Zhiyin-BL67 气海穴 Qihai-RN6
人中穴 Renzhong-DU26 肾俞穴 Shenshu-BL23
三阴交穴 Sanyinjiao-SP6 大肠俞穴 Dachangshu-BL25
极泉穴 Jiquan-HT1 尺泽穴 Chize-LU5
In the first table, there are some representative words related to special concepts, which have typical Chinese cultural characteristics and are difficult to find the corresponding words in English, such as “tuina”, “five zang-organs and six fu-organs” and the names of acupoints.
When interpreting these words, interpreters tend to use Pinyin to express. Therefore, the author listed all the acupoints mentioned on PPT and translated them in advance.
Table 2-2 The Terms of Meridians & Collaterals
经络 Meridians and Collaterals 任脉 Conception Vessel
经脉 meridians 督脉 Governor Vessel
络脉 collaterals 带脉 Belt Vessel
十二正经 Twelve Regular Meridians 阴跷脉 Yin Heel Vessel
十二经别 Twelve Divergent Meridians 阳跷脉 Yang Heel Vessel
奇经八脉 Eight Extra Meridians 阴维脉 Yin Link Vessel
冲脉 Thoroughfare Vessel 阳维脉 Yang Link Vessel
The second table displays some representative words about meridians and collaterals, which have already been translated by many scholars and was hard to interpret by the author in a short time. In order to guarantee the accuracy of these terminologies, the author checked them carefully one by one, using Termonline, Google and reading some articles related to TCM translation.
There is no doubt that during the process of interpreting, provided that a proper theory is adopted, there will be a strong support for the successful development of the task. This practical report is under the guidance of Danica Seleskovitch and Marianne Lederer's the interpretive theory. Born in the 1960s on the basis of observations of professional interpreters' practices, the interpretive theory was put forward by Danica Seleskovitch and Marianne Lederer and established in the published book— Interpreter Pour Traduire.
The interpretive theory, also known as the theory of sense, refers to the basic theory of
interpreting procedure, which means that when using the target language to express the source
language, the interpreters should choose the expression modes based on meaning, rather than
the form of source language (Le Dailei, 2005: 89). The theory is directly derived from
interpreting practice, whose points have their unique inspiration for interpreting studies and
practices. Lederer pointed out that “practices in consecutive and simultaneous interpreting
together with the teaching of them had helped us lay the foundation for the interpretive
theory” (Le Dailei, 2002). The triangular model of interpretation, an innovative concept,
makes it a major accomplishment of the interpretive theory, which divides interpreting
process into three steps: listening comprehension, deverbalization and re-expression (Liu
To be specific, listening comprehension means that interpreters should ensure the accurate understanding of the source language what they have heard through linguistic symbols and their own cognitive supplement. By analyzing and understanding, the interpreters should clearly convey the main ideas that these symbols express. This stage is called exegesis of discourse, which is the extremely requisite part to connect the speaker with the listeners in the interpreting process.
Deverbalization is key to an interpreting process, which requires interpreters not to be constrained by the structure of source language and integrate and store the source text through their own understanding. The interpreters need to forget the structure of the language structures immediately and consciously so that they can rarely remember the main idea, that is the sense of cognition and emotion produced by language symbols (Liu Heping, 2011). In the consecutive interpreting, interpreters can forget the original words and sentences in the source language, get rid of the influence of source language and grasp main idea of the speaker. They have time to interpret the meaning of the source language into the target language so as to complete the conversion of two languages.
Re-expression is the third process, which demonstrates that interpreters should reorganize the source text and express in the target text. Interpreters not only need to deliver the authentic meaning of the source language, but also make the audience achieve the similar emotional cognition with the speaker. This stage is the rearrangement of the source language (Liu Heping, 2011).
Generally speaking, the interpretive theory doesn't regard interpretation as a one-way decode process from the source language to the target language, but a dynamic process between idea understanding and re-expression. It emphasizes that the goal of the interpreting is the equivalence of original meaning or the effect of source language rather than the equivalence of two languages in their literal forms.
This interpreting practice is a TCM interpreting with strong Chinese characteristics. One of the typical characteristics of TCM language is its conciseness, that is to say, an important therapy or theory can be fully summarized into two or four Chinese words. But it is hard to express the meaning using the same words in English, so sometimes interpreters should define the concept by explanation. In consideration of the features of TCM interpreting, the author deems that the interpretive theory can provide a positive theoretical support for her to tackle
some unexpected difficulties effectively and efficiently.
It took about 80 minutes in total from beginning to end. During this period of time, the speaker, foreign students and the author spent a pleasant time and the author assisted the speaker to accurately and fluently convey the content and completed the task successfully.
Considering the time difference, the exchange began at 3:00 pm (Beijing Time) on August 29th, 2020. In Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, it was 2:00 pm. In the capital of Myanmar—Yangon, the beginning time was 1:30 pm. The time in Manila, the capital of Philippines was the same as Beijing time. At 2:30 pm, the speaker sent us the Tencent Meeting code in the WeChat group. The author found a good place at home to ensure that the Internet condition was very good. After we all attended the Tencent Meeting, the speaker welcomed us and suggested that everyone could make a brief introduction to get familiar with each other. We talked about some points that we should know before the meeting, such as the time arrangement, the dominating points to what the speaker mainly talked about, the major aspects that the foreigners would like to know and so on. The atmosphere was changed from serious to relaxed and easy. Since it was the first time for the author to be a TCM interpreter, the author was a little nervous at the beginning.
Then, the online interpretation started at 3:00 pm on time and lasted for almost one and a half hours. The author was mainly responsible for the speech of the speaker and the dialogue among speaker and foreigners. What the speaker introduced could be divided into three sections. According to the order of his PPT, he gave his speech about their university—the general introduction of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese medicine, the speaker's college—School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina and some acupuncture and tuina techniques. After the first two parts, we had fifteen minutes to take a rest. During the whole process, the speaker talked clearly and smoothly with moderate speed and gave us a vivid and excellent speech. When foreign students had the chance to ask the speaker questions, they actively took part in the Q&A part. Thanks to the comprehensive pre-preparations and the patient explanation from the speaker, the author felt at ease gradually. In general, the author completed the interpreting task smoothly and successfully. But there were some emergency situations, for instance, due to the instability of the Internet, sometimes the author couldn't hear what the speaker said clearly. Fortunately, the pre-preparation of the PPT and the words on the screen helped the author a lot to interpret. At the end of this interpreting, the speaker,
foreign students and the author expressed thanks to each other.
After interpreting practice, the author asked the speaker and foreigners what they felt and made evaluation to the author's interpreting. Effective feedback is significant for the author to fully find her merits and demerits in order to improve herself in the future. The feedback is divided into two parts: the first one is the objective evaluation that is the evaluation from the speaker and foreigners; the other one is self-evaluation, which enables the author to summarize the practical experience.
2.3.1Feedback from the Speaker
The speaker Mr. Zhang firstly acknowledged the author's efforts in the pre-preparations and the perfect cooperation in the whole interpreting process. Then, he evaluated that the author had earnest attitude, excellent interpreting techniques and quick responsiveness, which ensured that the whole meeting was fully understood by foreigners. In addition, he also spoke highly of the author's timely communication with him when encountering uncomprehending sentences and familiar expressions, which ensured that the accuracy of his messages was delivered. In short, the speaker hoped he could have more opportunities to cooperate with the author in the future.
2.3.2Feedback from the Foreigners
After the task, the author also asked comments from three foreigners one by one about the interpreting through WeChat so as to know her advantages and disadvantages. NGUYEN NGOC ANH thanked the author for her interpretation so that she could understand what the speaker wanted to express accurately and thought that the author had a good communication skill. Geraldine recognized the author's work capability and showed that she liked the author's genial attitude very much. She felt at ease and warm rather than nervous and bored in the whole process. SU PO MAY said that she found the author was gradually becoming better and doing well. Through the speaker's speech and the author's interpretation, she learned more about acupuncture-moxibustion and tuina. She was interested in tuina particularly, and would like to learn more techniques about tuina.
Generally speaking, the author was relatively satisfied with her performance in this task
because the exchange successfully completed. Before interpreting, she made adequate
preparations, such as searching for relevant information about TCM, translating professional
terms and communicating with the speaker effectively. Because the exchange was held through Internet, the author held the view that she felt less nervous than on-site interpreting. In the process of interpreting, she could have a quick response when heard what the speaker said and smoothly interpreted the contents.
Nevertheless, the author also found her disadvantages in the whole process. The author's speed was a little fast in the beginning because of a little nervousness and panic. To catch up with the speaker's speed, the author sometimes rushed to interpret some sentences and made some mistakes when expressed.
All in all, the author's competence was improved in this TCM interpreting practice and these experiences what she has gained would lay the foundation for the future's tasks. In order to overcome her shortcomings, she earnestly made a reflection, hoping to have a better performance in the future.
Chapter 3 Case Analysis
This chapter is about case analysis, the core element of the report. After introducing relevant preparations for the task, the author will enlarge specific interpreting techniques applied in the interpreting process based on the interpretive theory. The author will also analyze the major problems that appear in the interpreting process and provide the revision.
In the aspect of translation practice, interpreting theory can guide the interpreting from a macro point of view, which can influence the interpreting strategies and the language style; while interpreting techniques are the experience concluded in the interpreting process, which can guide interpreting practice at a micro level, such as specific terms, syntactic structures and specifical sentences (Zhang Zhi, 2007: 86). Therefore, it is imperative to adopt a scientific interpreting theory and some interpreting techniques in the interpreting process.
The interpretive theory holds that the object of interpreting is not the language itself but the meaning expressed by it. Interpreting tasks aim at conveying the communicative meaning so that people who speak different languages can still understand each other (Gile, 2009). Under the guidance of the interpretive theory, the interpreter can use different interpreting techniques to help her to address some interpreting difficulties and improve the speed of interpretation. The interpreter adopts some interpreting techniques, including transliteration, explanation, generalization, calque, transliteration plus explanation and so on.
Most words in any language could find their equivalent words in other languages, which is a phenomenon in all nations of the world. However, a small portion of words couldn't find the corresponding words because they reflect peculiar things, ideas or thoughts of that nation. Though they occupied a small proportion, the function was significant. They not only reflect the cultural features of a country or nation, but also become the symbol of distinguishing between different cultures (Li Zhaoguo, 2013: 181). As for TCM language, a small portion is peculiar and unique, which reflects the core of TCM basic theories and the cultural characteristics of Chinese nation. To maintain their particular concepts in English interpretation and to conform to the transient nature of interpretation, it is reasonable for interpreters to use the method of transliteration to interpret them. Currently, it is relatively feasible to use the technique of transliteration to interpret some specific TCM concepts in domestic and foreign practices, which has been accepted by TCM translators, interpreters and foreign readers gradually (Niu Chuanyue, 2004: 160). The representatives are about Chinese medicine translation and acupuncture acupoints translation. For instance, most interpreters use transliteration to interpret acupuncture acupoints in clinical acupuncture interpretation at present.
Source Text:最后呢，还用一些特殊腧穴具有自己独特的作用，例如天枢穴、足三里穴、 内关穴、合谷穴等具有双向调节作用,还有大椎穴是退热的要穴,至阴穴可以纠正胎位等， 以上所介绍的就是腧穴的主治特点。
Target Text: Finally, some special acupoints have their own unique roles, such as Tianshu-ST25, Zusanli-ST36, Neiguan-PC6, Hegu-LI4 and so on, which have bidirectional regulation effects. Dazhui-DU14 is the key point of antipyretic, and Zhiyin-BL67 can correct fetal position, etc. The above is the main characteristics of acupoints.
Analysis: This case is selected from interpreting practice, which involves the names of acupoints, such as “天枢穴、足三里穴、内关穴、合谷穴”.The equivalent words couldn't be found in English and it was hard for the interpreter to explain in detail in the limited time. The interpreter adopted the method of transliteration and interpreted them into “Tianshu, Zusanli, Neiguan, Hegu, Dazhui, Zhiyin”. In this way, foreigners would realize that these words were in Chinese characters, which was conducive to maintaining and inheriting TCM culture in Chinese and foreign communication. What's more, the interpreter believed that this case could set a good example for interpreting the names of acupoints.
However, in the field of translation, the combination of English words and numbers, as a common means, is generally employed by the translators to translate these acupoints. In 1989, 361 acupoint names were unified by WHO in International Standard Terminologies on Traditional Medicine in the Western Pacific Region (Zhu Hanting et al., 2008: 556). Therefore, when transcribing recording, the interpreter used the method of combination of English words and numbers to express the names of acupoints.
Source Text:推拿呢是通过手法作用于人体体表的特定部位,以调节机体的生理、病理 状况，达到防治疾病的目的。
Target Text: Tuina is used to act on specific parts of the body surface by manipulation to regulate the physiological and pathological conditions of the body and achieve the purpose of
preventing and treating diseases.
Analysis: Due to the great differences between Chinese and Western TCM cultures, some specific concepts in TCM theories couldn't find their equivalents in English, such as “气 ”, “阴阳”, “ 气功”, “推拿” and so on. These words have typical Chinese cultural characteristics and the true meaning of the original text cannot accurately be shown, whether literal translation or free translation. In the past few years, translators and interpreters attempted to use the method of free translation to translate these words, but the results were far from their expectations. The interpreter looked up the word “ 推拿 ” online and found many versions, among which “massage” and “tuina” had the highest acceptability. She wasn't sure which one was correct. She communicated with the speaker through WeChat and checked with him which one they used the most. The speaker was glad to help her and told her that there wasn't a certain translation of “ 推拿 ” in English. Therefore, the interpreter adopted the method of transliteration and interpreted “推拿” into “tuina” to maintain its Chinese characteristics.
Source Text:得气是针灸起效的关键,关系到对疾病的治疗效果的好坏，甚至还可以预 测疾病的预后转归。
Target Text: De qi is the key to the effect of acupuncture, which is related to good or bad treatment effect of the disease. It can even predict the metastasis and development of the disease based on experience.
Analysis: In this case, “得气” contains strong Chinese traditional culture, which can't express its own meaning by one or two words. When the interpreter heard “得气”, she interpreted “得气” into “De qi”. If the interpreter interpreted it into “acu-esthesia”, foreigners would think of another word which was different from the true meaning of “de qi”. “De qi” is a term of needling coming from Su Wen- Li He Zhen Xie Lun, which is relevant to the efficacy after acupuncture. Considering its Chinese characteristic, the interpreter chose the technique of transliteration to interpret it. It can not only retain traditional Chinese culture, but convey the final effect of “得气”, which contributes to information transformation and cultural communication.
As for the interpretation of the word “气”, there are different translation versions, such as air, breath and vital energy. If “ 气 ” was interpreted into “vital energy” in accordance with free translation, “ 动力 ”— a minor part meaning could be expressed. However, the whole meaning of “气” hasn't been displayed. After the long-term exploration of the TCM translators all over the world, they found only the way of transliteration could retain the true meaning of “气” and avoid losing information. From then on, “Qi or qi” gradually took the place of “vital energy” and became the normalized translation of “气” (Niu Chuanyue, 2004: 160). Considering these, the interpreter adopted the method of transliteration to interpret “气” into “qi” in the following interpreting.
SourceText: “醒脑开窍”针法是针对瘀血、肝风、痰浊等病理因素致中风而提出的治 疗法则和针刺方法。
Target Text: "Xingnao kaiqiaO' therapy is a therapeutic principle and acupuncture method proposed for stroke caused by blood stasis, liver wind, phlegm-stasis and other pathological factors blinding brain.
Analysis: In this case, the interpreter interpreted the phrase “ 醒 脑 开 窍 ” into “Xingnao kaiqiao”. “醒脑开窍” is an acupuncture therapy that created by academician Shi Xuemin to treat stroke in 1972. There was no equivalent word in English. As for its distinct Chinese characteristics, the interpreter thought it is crucial to let the foreigners know the original name in order to retain the rich TCM culture. The reason why the interpreter didn't explain its inner meaning was because the speaker would introduce its concept, acupoints selection and simple operations in detail in the following. With the utilization of transliteration, its cultural knowledge has been maintained and spread.
Foreigners who possess little knowledge about TCM couldn't understand professional terms and classical Chinese. Therefore, it is extremely essential for interpreters to add some explanations in accordance with actual situations, which can play the role of making up the shortage of background knowledge caused by cultural differences. Scholars of the theory hold that interpreters should not interpret a speech by applying only their knowledge of language (Lederer, 2003: 31). In order to ensure the accuracy of the source text and the acceptance of listeners, the interpreter can use the technique of explanation to make the target text explicit. Hence, foreigners can grasp the core meaning of the speaker and deepen their understanding of the TCM cultural knowledge. Take the interpretation of “《 黄 帝内 经》” as an example. If interpreters interpret it into “Huangdi's Internal Classic”, foreigners may realize it is the name of this book. But they cannot really understand that it possesses extremely important meaning in TCM culture. In contrast, it can be interpreted into “Huangdi's Internal Classic, an ancient Chinese medical encyclopedia, consisting of two books (Qin Yuangang, 2014: 1139).” Interpreters can increase some explanatory words appropriately to make up for foreigners' cultural gap, so they will have a deep understanding of TCM knowledge.
Source Text: 还选风池、完骨、百会以补益脑髓；金津、玉液或咽后壁放血及上廉泉改 善语言功能和吞咽功能；手指握固加合谷；足内翻取丘墟透照海。
Target Text: Fengchi-GB20, Wangu-GB12, Baihui-DU20 are also chosen to invigorate brain marrow. Jinjin(EX-HN 12), Yuye(EX-HN 13) or posterior pharyngeal are chosen to bleed blood. Shanglianquan-RN23 can improve language and swallowing function. If the patients' fingers hold firmly, Hegu-LI4 needs to be acupunctured. If the patients have foot deformities, the direction from Qiuxu-GB40 to Zhaohai-KI6 should be acupunctured.
Analysis: The underlined sentence involves some specific terms and its language tends to be classical Chinese. When the interpreter saw this sentence in the stage of preparation, she couldn't understand the true meaning not to mention interpreting it correctly. It was hard for the interpreter to understand the meaning of “握固 ” and “足内 翻 ”. If the interpreter couldn't grasp the true meaning of the source text, she wouldn't express the accurate meaning in the target text. Considering the acceptance and feeling of foreigners, the interpreter communicated with the speaker and requested him to explain the sentence from classical Chinese into modern Chinese. After she understood its true meaning, the interpreter interpreted this sentence into “If the patients' fingers hold firmly, Hegu needs to be acupunctured. If the patients have foot deformities, the direction from Qiuxu to Zhaohai should be acupunctured.” in accordance with the technique of explanation. The interpreter tried to use plain language to express, which could ensure that listeners grasped the true meaning ofthe sentence.
Source Text: 从器具来讲，毫针和三棱针运用较多，小小的毫针配合上医者的操作手法， 可以起到虚实补泻的作用,实则泻之，虚则补之，而三棱针大多为泻法，医者往往用其来刺 络放血。
Target Text: In terms of instruments, filiform needle and three-edged needle are used more. Small filiform needles combined with the operation of doctors can play the role of tonifying and purging deficiency and excess. That is treating excess syndrome with purgative methods and treating deficiency syndrome with tonifying methods. But three-edged needles are mostly purging, which are used by doctors to puncture collaterals and bleed blood.
Analysis: The underlined part “ 虚实补泻 ” is a four-character TCM term. After that, the speaker used eight characters “实则泻之，虚则补之” to explain its meaning, but the language also tended to be classical Chinese. “虚实” is from the aspect ofthe nature ofthe disease, which is an extremely important part in differentiating syndromes. “补泻” is from the aspect of the treatment methods, which is used mainly aiming at deficiency and excess syndrome. “实则泻之” means that if patients suffer from excess syndrome, they need to be treated by purging methods; while “虚则补 之” means that if patients suffer from deficiency syndrome, they need to be treated by tonifying methods. The interpreter adopted the method of explanation to interpret them for listeners in order to deepen their understanding. The underlined part “ 刺络 放血 ” is a similar example that the interpreter adopted the same technique. “刺络放血”, one ofthe traditional acupuncture therapies, means that doctors use three-edged needles to puncture collaterals and bleed blood. The interpreter holds the responsibility to convey the true meaning of the original text to listeners. Not only can it help listeners to grasp the core meaning of the speaker, but it is conducive to the TCM effective communication between Chinese and outside world.
SourceText: 这些穴位呢运用得当的话可以起到立竿见影的效果，例如原穴擅长治疗脏 病，五脏有疾皆取之十二原，阴经的郄穴擅长治疗血证，而阳经的郄穴擅长治疗急性痛证。
Target Text: If these points are used properly, they can have immediate effects. For instance, yuan-primary point can treat diseases for zang-organs. The diseases of five-zang organs are all from Twelve yuan-primary point. Xi-cleft point ofYin meridians can treat blood syndrome, while xi-cleft point ofYang meridians can treat acute pain.
Analysis: In this case, the speaker used these sentences to introduce the effects of specific points and listed some examples to listeners. The underlined sentence was the introduction to “Twelve yuan-primary point”, which belonged to classical Chinese. According to three stages ofthe interpretive theory, when the interpreter heard this sentence, the interpreter shouldn't be constrained by the structure of source language and tried to understand the true meaning of the sentence. With the help ofthe technique ofexplanation, this sentence could be understood as “若五脏患有疾病，都 是来自于十二原穴 ” . The interpreter used the fluent target language to interpret the sentence into “The diseases offive-zang organs are all from Twelve yuan-primary point.”
One of the typical characteristics of TCM language is concise and comprehensive. An important therapy or TCM theory can be generalized completely in two or four characters in Chinese. But it is difficult for interpreters to use the same or similar English words to express its true meaning clearly. Under these situations, many interpreters will use explanation to define the source text in English. However, sometimes interpreters have to use many words to make the theory explain clearly. If the interpreter spends too much time explaining the whole content, the target text will be much verbose. It will break the normal communicative function and lose practical value. When this circumstance occurs, interpreters can use the technique of generalization to generalize the content when necessary (Qin Yuangang, 2014: 1139). In order to ensure the accuracy of the target text and the acceptance by listeners, the interpreter can use the technique of generalization when necessary.
Source Text:在临床中，可以通过辨证论治,确定病变的主要脏腑，从而选取其所属经 脉的腧穴来进行相应的补泻操作，这叫经脉所过，主治所及；
Target Text: In clinical practice, the main organs of the disease can be determined by differentiating syndrome to decide treatment, so that the acupoints of the meridians to which it belongs can be selected for corresponding tonifying and purging. That is to say, the running course of the meridians can decide the features of their indications.
Analysis: According to Seleskovitch, “First ofall, interpretation is a communicative action. In the natural communicative activity, language plays the role of instrument. Accordingly, we highlight that the object of interpreting is information sense, but language (Liu Heping, 2011: 33). Interpretive theory holds that what the interpreter pursues is the equivalence of sense rather than words and structures. This case is the introduction about the characteristics of acupoints, including many TCM terms. The typical feature of TCM is just a few numbers, but is full of profound meaning. An important Chinese theory can be expressed completely in two or four words in Chinese characters. However, it is difficult to use the same number of words to express it clearly when interpreting it from Chinese into English. For example, the underlined phrase “辨证论治” was interpreted into “differentiating syndrome to decide treatment” in the target text. If the interpreter used the method of explanation to interpret it, the full meaning is “diagnosis and treatment based on the overall analysis of symptoms and signs”. From the view of interpretation, this version had obvious shortcomings. For instance, if the interpreter interpreted this TCM term into this one, it was difficult to perform its normal communicative function due to its length and complication. For better communication between the speaker and the listener, the interpreter can adopt generalization to simplify the target language. From the perspective of interpretation, as long as three key words “辨”，“证” and “治” were interpreted consistently and the structure of the whole term was relatively concise, the requirements of term translation were basically realized (Niu Chuanyue, 2004: 159). Therefore, the interpreter adopted the method of generalization to interpret the phrase “辨证论治”.
Source Text: 得气是针灸起效的关键，关系到对疾病的治疗效果的好坏，甚至还可以预 测疾病的预后转归。
Target Text: De qi is the key to the effect of acupuncture, which is related to good or bad treatment effect of the disease. It can even predict the metastasis and development of the disease based on experience.
Analysis: The interpretive theory held the view that when interpreting, interpreters must grasp the contents of the source language and keep in mind coherently, rather than being restrained into the sentences and words of the source language (Liu Heping, 2011: 30). The underlined phrase “预 后转归” was a TCM term that contains rich TCM knowledge and philosophy. If foreigners haven't heard this phrase before, it was difficult and complicated for the interpreter to explain it clearly within the limited time. “ 转 归 ” refers to the meaning of the metastasis and development of the disease, such as the deterioration or improvement of the disease and the spread or relief of the disease. “预后” refers to the development ofthe disease predicted by experience. The interpreter used the technique of generalization and interpreted this phrase into “metastasis and development of the disease based on experience”. The interpreter generalized the core information ofthe contents to express the basic concepts without interpreting word by word. On the one hand, the application of generalization guaranteed the integrity of what the speaker delivered. On the other hand, listeners could gain the main idea ofthe speech.
Calque refers to that when encountering some terms that have no equivalent terms in the target language, interpreters can use corresponding morpheme or words in the target language to express some parts of the terms (Niu Chuanyue, 2004:159). Because ofparticular theoretical system, there are differences in the meaning of TCM terms and that of modern medicine. Despite the aspects of human anatomy, physiology and pathology, the terms have the similar or the same meaning. However, most TCM terms have different meanings in other aspects. Under these circumstances, it is difficult for interpreters to find correspondent TCM terms in English. In fact, former interpreters and translators began to adopt the method of calque to interpret TCM terms (Li Zhaoguo, 1997: 32). In this practice, the interpreter adopted the technique of calque to interpret some terms.
Source Text: “醒脑开窍”针法是针对瘀血、肝风、痰浊等病理因素致中风而提出的治疗 法则和针刺方法。
Target Text: “ Xingnao kaiqiao” therapy is a therapeutic principle and acupuncture method proposed for stroke caused by blood stasis, liver wind, phlegm-stasis and other pathological factors blinding brain.
Analysis: The underlined three terms “ 瘀 血 ” “ 肝 风 ” “ 痰 浊 ” were the names of the pathological factors. As we all know, such words exist in English, like “blood”, “stasis”, “liver”, and “phlegm”. But the concepts of “blood stasis, liver wind and phlegm-stasis” couldn't be found. In fact, former translators and interpreters tried to use the method of calque to translate TCM terms from the perspective of lexical translation. Calque means that interpreters can borrow the existing English words to express specific TCM concepts. In other words, the specific concepts and expressions in TCM were introduced to the English language by reorganizing the existing English words. The interpreter adopted the method to interpret these TCM terms according with the standard ofTCM interpreting.
Target Text: Then, let's talk about Meridians and Collaterals. Just as its name implies, Meridians and Collaterals includes meridians and collaterals.
Analysis: In the preparation, the interpreter looked up some literature about the translation of “ 经 络”, “ 经 脉” and “ 络脉” to ensure the accuracy of target language. There were different translations in different literatures, among which the common translations were “Channel”, “Meridian” and “Vessel”. Acupuncture Acupoints Standards formulated by WHO suggested that “经” is “Meridian”, “络” is “Collateral” and “经络” is “Meridian and Collateral” (Huang Tao et al., 2004: 40). Take “经脉” as an example. “Meridian” was doubted by TCM experts all over the world. Because the original meaning of “Meridian” is “子午线；经线”, which is an imaginary line on the surface of the sphere. Considering that “Meridian” has been used by foreigners for many years and adopted by TCM translators and interpreters, the interpreter adopted the method of calque to
interpret them. Three foreigners were more familiar with the normal translation than others.
SourceText: 在选穴上以阴经和督脉穴为主，组成包括内关穴、人中穴、三阴交穴为主 穴，以醒脑开窍，滋补肝肾。极泉穴、尺泽穴、委中穴为辅穴以疏通经络。
Target Text: The main acupoints are Yin meridian and governor vessel point on points selection, which consist of Neiguan-PC6, Renzhong-DU26 and Sanyinjiao-SP6 to awaken the brain and nourish the liver and kidney. Jiquan-HTI, Chize-LU5 and Weizhong-BL40 are assisting acupoints to dredge the meridians and collaterals.
Analysis: In this case, the speaker introduced the points selection about “Xingnao kaiqiao” therapy. In this sentence, “ 滋 补 肝 肾 ” and “ 疏 通 经 络 ” are the purpose of selecting the main acupoints and assisting acupoints respectively. According to the method of calque, the interpreter used “liver” “kidney” “meridians” and “collaterals” to help her to finish the interpretation of the whole sentence. This expression is helpful for foreigners to have a better understanding about the purpose of selecting the acupoints.
3.1.5Transliteration Plus Explanation
The combination of transliteration and explanation can form new words and meanings. This method is not limited to TCM and has practical value in other areas. This method is used in the aspect of acupuncture to translate specific points. Apart from communicating TCM culture and reflecting TCM features, it can differentiate specific points and common points (Yang Xue, 2013: 7). In this practice, the interpreter used this method to interpret many proper nouns to make foreigners have a better understanding.
Source Text:艾灸大致分为艾炷灸和艾条灸,艾炷灸包括有直接灸、间接灸，艾条灸包 括悬起灸和雀啄灸。
Target Text: Moxa-wool moxibustion is roughly divided into moxa-cone moxibustion and moxa stick moxibustion. Moxa-cone moxibustion includes direct moxibustion and indirect moxibustion. Moxa stick moxibustion includes over skin moxibustion and sparrow-pecking moxibustion.
Analysis: Inthiscase, “艾灸” is one ofthe representative examples that was interpreted into “moxibustion”. “Moxibustion” is combined with “moxi-”and “-bustion”. “Moxa” is a Latin word that spells in accordance with the pronunciation of Japanese “艾”. “Moxi” conforms to the method of transliteration, while “bustion” means “burn” that conforms to the method of explanation. The interpreter used the method of transliteration plus explanation to interpret “ 艾 灸 ” into “moxibustion.
Source Text: 好，除了这些以外呢，临床中医者还会选取一些特定穴，常见的特定穴有 五输穴、十二原穴、十五络穴、十二募穴、背俞穴、十六郄穴、八脉交会穴、交会穴、下合 穴等。
Target Text: Besides, doctors also select some specific points in clinic. The common specific points include Five-shu point, Twelve yuan-primary point, Fifteen Luo-connecting point, Twelve front-mu point, Back-shu point, Sixteen xi-cleft point, Eight confluence point, Crossing point, Lower-he-sea point and so on.
Analysis: In this case, “ 络 穴 ” was interpreted into “Luo-connecting point”. “ 络 ” means “connection” and “spreading” and plays the role in connecting meridians and zang-fu. The interpreter adopted the method of transliteration to interpret “络” into “Luo”. To show its utilization, the interpreter added the explanation “connecting” after “Luo”. The interpreter combined two methods to interpret this noun to help listeners gain more knowledge about this acupoint.
3.2Major Problems during Interpretation
Interpretation is a highly complex mental activity, which puts forward the high requirements on the quality of interpreters, such as on the aspect of professional quality, psychological quality and physical quality. Through long-term training and studying, interpreters possess higher professional quality. But when interpreting on-site, the interpreters would have some psychological pressure (Xu Mingwu et al., 2008: 77). For the interpreter, when she received the PPT from the speaker, she began to read and translate the words carefully. Generally speaking, the outlines and contents on the slides were in detail. The full preparations helped the interpreter reduce some stress, which was mainly embodied in the aspect of listening and mental pressure.
No matter how meticulously the interpreter prepared for the interpreting task, she still encountered a series of unpredictable difficulties. Due to nervousness and emergencies, the interpreter met with several problems in the process of interpreting practice. This part will analyze the main problems occurring in this practice from the aspect of missing information, Internet problems and inaccurate interpretation.
Information loss in the practice is a common phenomenon, which is caused by low concentration and continuous practice. Missing the main information will have a bad impact on the success of the conversation and the understanding of listeners. Therefore, interpreters need to try their best to reduce the information loss to the minimum in the whole process.
In this exchange, the speaker delivered his speech at a slower speed, which was beneficial to the interpreter. Not only did it give her more time to take notes and interpret, but also reduced her nervousness. In addition, with the help of the PPT and terms preparation, the interpreter seldom missed key information in the process.
Source Text: 推拿治疗在临床上最多应用的还是（肩）颈、肩、腰腿疼痛和四肢骨关节、 肌肉、神经等病变，常用手法有援、揉、按、推、拿、抖、捏脊等法。
Target Text: Tuina therapy is mostly used in clinical treatment for the pain of neck, shoulder, waist and leg, and the pathological changes of limb, joint, muscle, nerve. Common manipulations include kneading, pressing, pushing, massaging, shaking, spinal pinching and so on.
Analysis: This sentence was the introduction about Tuina therapy, which consisted of its application and common manipulations. The interpreter forgot to interpret one of the manipulations “援法”.At that time, the practice was nearly close to the end. The interpreter felt a little tired and couldn't concentrate on the interpretation as the beginning. Fortunately, this kind of information loss didn't cause severe consequences. The interpreter still needs to pay attention to reducing such mistakes next time.
What's more, “援法” was one of the manipulations created by TCM doctors in China, which belonged to Chinese characteristic terms and had no equivalent word in English. According to the technique oftransliteration, the interpreter thought that it could be interpreted into “gun”.
Revised Version: Tuina therapy is mostly used in clinical treatment for the pain of neck, shoulder, waist and leg, and the pathological changes of limb, joint, muscle, nerve. Common manipulations include gun, kneading, pressing, pushing, massaging, shaking, spinal pinching and so on.
Target Text: Acupuncture technique developed from stone needle disease is later called
Analysis: The speaker introduced what was “刺法” to listeners. In the underlined clause, the interpreter forgot to interpret the verb “ 刺”, which not only changed the original meaning of the source language, but also didn't conform to the grammatical structure. It was caused by her lack of concentration and couldn't grasp the complete contents. When she interpreted, she couldn't express in English completely. It might make foreigners feel confused about the concept of “acupuncture technique”. From the perspective of interpretation, missing information caused by lack of concentration is common. To solve the problem, the interpreter needs to be more concentrated next time.
Revised Version: Acupuncture technique developed from treating disease with stone needle is later called “acupuncture method”.
Source Text:在临床应用方面：毫针以其在临床中具有简、便、廉、效的特点和广泛的 适应症，深受广大患者的青睐。
Target Text: Clinical application: filiform needle is favored by the majority of patients because ofits simple, convenient, inexpensive and wide range of indications in clinical practice.
Analysis: In this case, the speaker introduced the characteristics offiliform to listeners. First of all, the interpreter missed one of the features in the target language, which was caused by that she didn't take all the characteristics down in limited time. In addition, after analyzing the target language, she believed that the structure ofthe whole sentence could be improved.
Revised Version: Clinical application: filiform needle is favored by the majority of patients because it has the characteristics of simple, convenient, inexpensive, efficacy and wide range of indications in clinical practice.
Target Text: Twelve regular meridians take Governor vessel as the center. Point to heart is tonifying and back to the heart is purging.
Analysis: In this case, the interpreter missed the key information “捻转的方向”, because she didn't know how to express “捻转” under the pressure. She only interpreted the second halfofthe sentence. Besides, in the target language, there were some grammatical errors, such as “point” and “back”. The meaning ofthe sentence “向心为补，离心为泻” is “pointing to heart is tonifying and the opposite direction is purging.”
Revised Version: Twelve regular meridians take Governor vessel as the center. The direction of twirling is that pointing to heart is tonifying and the opposite direction is purging.
For the sake of coronavirus epidemic, the practice was performed through Tencent Meeting App online. Compared with on-site interpretation, online interpretation has its own special characteristics. On the one hand, the interpreter doesn't need to face the speakers and the listeners, so the interpreter 's mental pressure can be reduced to some extent. On the other hand, due to the long distance and different version of the App, network quality is closely related to whether the practice could complete successfully. For example, in the Q&A part, the interpreter couldn't hear what the foreigners spoke very clearly as the speaker spoke.
Source Text:…法,是由砭石刺病发展而来，后来又称“针法”，目前其含义已非常广泛， 即指使用不同的针具或非针具，通过一定的手法或方式刺激机体的一定部位，也就是腧穴， 以防治疾病的操作方法。
Target Text: Acupuncture technique developed from stone needle disease is later called “acupuncture method”. At present, its meaning is very extensive. It refers to the practice of using different needles or non-needles to stimulate certain parts of the body, for example, the acupoints, in a certain way to prevent and treat diseases.
Analysis: In this case, due to the bad network at that time, the interpreter didn't listen clearly what the speaker said and only remembered “x 法”. In order to make up for the missing information, she looked at the screen and interpreted the words displayed on the PPT. Then, she realized that is “刺法” and continued to interpret the whole sentence. On the whole, with the help ofthe PPT, the interpreter finished the task more successfully, which reflects the great importance ofpreparation.
Consecutive interpreting requires interpreters to keep a high degree of concentration in the whole process, which is an instantaneous activity. However, there is no doubt that interpreters can't guarantee they can concentrate all the time under the high pressure. Under the circumstances, inaccurate interpretation will occur in the process ofinterpreting.
Source Text:针灸疗法具有适应症广、疗效显著、应用方便、经济安全等优点，普遍为 人们所接受，已经成为许多国家医疗手段的组成部分。
Target Text: Acupuncture and moxibustion therapy has the advantages of wide indications, remarkable efficacy, convenient application, economic safety and so on. It is generally accepted by people and has become an integral part ofmedical means in many countries.
Analysis: In order to avoid some interminable terminologies and technical words appearing repeatedly, the interpreter can use acronyms or abbreviations after the first time. For example, “中 医” is “traditional Chinese medicine, TCM”; “针灸” is “acupuncture and moxibustion, acumoxi”; “伤寒” is “exogenous febrile disease, EFD” (Qin Yuangang, 2014: 1138). The word “针灸” has appeared so many times before this sentence. Considering if the interpreter always repeated the full name, not only the interpreter herself felt tedious and complex, but also listeners felt bored and lost some interest. It was better for the interpreter to interpret “针灸” into “acumoxi” to ensure timely and continuous communication. After listening to her recording again and again, the interpreter found that she interpreted “针灸” into “acupuncture and moxibustion” all the time. This case is a representative example and there are so many in this practice requiring improvement.
Revised Version: Acumoxi therapy has the advantages of wide indications, remarkable efficacy, convenient application, economic safety and so on. It is generally accepted by people and has become an integral part of medical means in many countries.
Source Text: 针灸学是以中医理论为指导，研究经络、腧穴及刺灸方法，探讨运用针灸 防治疾病规律的一门学科。
Target Text: Acupuncture Science is a discipline that studies meridians, acupoints and acupuncture and moxibustion methods under the guidance of traditional Chinese medicine theory and discusses the laws ofusing acupuncture and moxibustion to prevent and treat diseases.
Analysis: This sentence was the second sentence in the third part, which was the detailed introduction about “Acupuncture Science”. When the interpreter listened to her recording again and again, she found that she didn't grasp the true logic ofthe whole sentence. She interpreted “以中医 理论为指导” after the clause “研究经络、腧穴及刺灸方法” at that time. Actually, it is better to change the clauses order to make the whole sentence more logical.
Revised Version: Under the guidance of traditional Chinese medicine theory, Acupuncture Science is a discipline that studies meridians, acupoints and acupuncture and moxibustion methods and discusses the laws ofusing acupuncture and moxibustion to prevent and treat diseases.
Source Text:即指使用不同的针具或非针具，通过一定的手法或方式刺激机体的一定部 位，也就是腧穴，以防治疾病的操作方法。
Target Text: It refers to the practice of using different needles or non-needles to stimulate certain parts ofthe body, for example, the acupoints, in a certain way to prevent and treat diseases.
Analysis: This sentence was the detailed introduction about “acupuncture technique”. First of all, “通过一定的手法或方式” wasn't interpreted in a correct expression and proper position. Due to high nervousness and tense information, the interpreter couldn't remember all the information completely. Then, in the target text, “也就是说” was expressed into “for example”. After thinking deeply, the interpreter believes it is better to use “that refers to” to replace it and put it at the end of the sentence separately.
Revised Version: It refers to the practice of using different needles or non-needles and certain manipulations to stimulate certain parts of the body to prevent and treat diseases. That refers to the acupoints.
Source Text: 另外呢，值得跟大家说的是，针灸的疗效不单单取决于医者的操作技术， 这与医患的精神状态也密切相关。
Target Text: In addition, it is worth saying that the efficacy of acupuncture does not only depend on the operation skills of doctors, but also closely related to the mental state of patients.
Analysis: In this sentence, there was a grammatical error that the interpreter made. After the conjunction “but also”, the sentence was short of “be” verb, which caused the whole sentence in a different tense. The interpretation is an activity that requires the interpreter to keep high concentration and vitality within the process. The interpreter needs to do more interpreting practices and tries her best to avoid the kind of grammatical errors.
Revised Version: In addition, it is worth saying that the efficacy of acupuncture does not only depend on the operation skills of doctors, but also is closely related to the mental state of patients.
Source Text:另外呢，该针法还强调针刺手法量学规范,这有别于传统的取穴和针刺方 法。
Target Text: Moreover, the acupuncture method also emphasizes the quantitative norms of acupuncture manipulation, which is different from traditional point selection and acupuncture methods.
Analysis: In this case, when the interpreter heard “针刺手法量学规范”, she couldn't respond how to interpret this term correctly and quickly. She tried her best to interpret directly following the literal meaning and interpreted it into “the quantitative norms of acupuncture manipulation”. Though this version could express the meaning of the term, it was too long to benefit for oral communication. After the task, the interpreter searched for a better version for the term and presented a revised version.
Revised Version: Moreover, standard quantitative manipulations are applied in the acupuncture therapy, which are quite different from traditional point selection and acupuncture manipulations.
Chapter 4 Conclusion
The report, from the author's interpreting practice, presented the whole process of the consecutive interpreting about the exchange. In the former chapters, it mainly talked about the task description, task process, the preparation and the analysis of the cases. This concluding chapter demonstrates the interpreter's reflection on the interpreting process.
This interpreting task is about TCM interpreting, which provides a great opportunity for the interpreter. In the process of interpreting, not only can the author apply what she has learnt into the practice, but she has found her shortcomings in TCM Chinese-English interpretation.
On the one hand, this interpreting practice provided positive evidence for the application of the interpretive theory into the TCM interpreting. From the perspective of TCM language, there were some terms and theories in classical Chinese, which increased more difficulties for the interpreters. The interpretive theory suggested that the source language that the interpreters needed to understand, interpret and express was not the original form of source language, but the actual meaning and thought that the speakers would like to convey. The central task of the interpreters was deverbalization and re-expression (Gong Longsheng, 2008: 81). During interpreting practice, under the guidance of the interpretive theory, the author adopted some interpreting techniques and completed the task smoothly. The author found it was important to adopt an appropriate theory in the TCM interpreting.
On the other hand, the author also found her shortcomings, which she needed to overcome. First of all, she needed to improve her psychological quality. With a little nervousness and panic, her speed was a little fast in the beginning. Under the mental pressure, the author tended to repeat the words and added some modal particles unconsciously. Besides, local English expressions needed to be accumulated. The author could remember what the speaker said clearly, but sometimes she didn't know how to express it in English quickly.
4.2Enhancement of Comprehensive Quality
It is universally acknowledged that the interpreter is required to go through intensive training and possess some essential qualities in order to become a professional interpreter. An excellent TCM interpreter should have excellent interpreting competencies, which requires bilingual language skills, quick responsiveness, a wide range of encyclopedia knowledge, good mental state
and plenty of practices. TCM interpreters should enhance their comprehensive quality gradually.
TCM interpreters must have the ability to apply bilingual language flexibly and skillfully. Interpreters not only have a deep understanding of basic TCM cultural knowledge, but also master quite a few of professional terminologies. When meeting with the situation that there are no existing corresponding expressions in the target text, interpreters can borrow some Western medical terms to interpret similar TCM concepts or correctly create some TCM vocabulary that foreigners can understand.
Interpreters should have a wealth of TCM interpreting theories and master some interpreting techniques. With the guidance of interpreting theories, interpreters can retain the characteristics of TCM language style as accurately as possible and provide an accurate target text for listeners. TCM interpreters need to attach more importance to the study of translation and interpreting theories and put them into practices.
In addition, TCM interpreters should have a solid foundation for medical classical Chinese, which is abstruse and abstract. If interpreters couldn't understand the original meaning rightly, there is no doubt that they couldn't convey the true meaning correctly in the target language. Hence, TCM interpreters need to accumulate some knowledge in this aspect, which is beneficial to their understanding ofthe source text.
To conclude, it is of great significance for the author to reflect on her performance in this interpreting practice. The practice may provide references for future consecutive interpreting service in the field ofTCM for the author as well as other interpreters. It is a precious lesson for the author to realize how to prepare the task efficiently and sufficiently. In the future, the author will continue to get more interpreting theoretical knowledge and take part in more practices, hoping that she can gradually overcome her weaknesses and gain more and more success.
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